Posted by RAMA MELOW | 10:32 PM | | 8 comments »

Depending on whom you ask, the term Internet marketing can mean a variety of things. At one time, Internet marketing consisted mostly of having a website or placing banner ads on other websites. On the other end of the spectrum, there are loads of companies telling you that you can make a fortune overnight on the Internet and who try to sell you some form of "Internet marketing program".

Today, Internet marketing, or online marketing, is evolving into a broader mix of components a company can use as a means of increasing sales - even if your business is done completely online, partly online, or completely offline. The decision to use Internet marketing as part of a company's overall marketing strategy is strictly up to the company of course, but as a rule, Internet marketing is becoming an increasingly important part of nearly every company's marketing mix. For some online businesses, it is the only form of marketing being practiced.

7 Ways You Can Begin Internet Marketing for Free
1. Free search engine optimization and submissions can be used to promote your business to start with.

By submitting your website to different search engines every month you will let people know that your website is real and open for business. Try to use the top search engines to make the most of your efforts. is one of the best free tools for this.

2. Start writing articles or if you already do, try to make them better.

When writing article keep in mind good content is most important in bringing traffic to your website. Utilize the many free keyword suggestion tools and information to make your article not only interesting to people but also the search engines. Don't forget to use a good source or author info box to display your site URL, so people can easily go to your site. is a directory of article directories where you can submit your articles

3. Search article directories for free useful content.

If you don't have time to write articles you can find hundreds of free articles that are relevant to your subject. Many of these can be used as is providing you retain the source box. While not as good for marketing as ones you write they are better than nothing. and are two of the better ones to find free articles .

4. Use website traffic analyzers.

These free tools can be very useful for analyzing the traffic that you are getting on your website. You can learn how much you are getting, where its coming from and a lot more information. is a good free one.

5. Learn how to use web design templates.

Nowadays there are hundreds of custom designed web design templates you can download for free. Many of these can be customized to get the exact look you want on your site. It’s getting easier to design your own website as there are more and more sites that have free website builders coming online. These are usually limited in size but are good to get started with. Check out for templates and for websites.

6. Keep track of your website's standing.

Search engine position trackers are tools that can be used to see your website position. Keyword Tracker at is free and very handy for search engine tracking. is a free tool that will let you see where your website ranks on the internet along with other useful information.

7. Get an autoresponder

An autoresponder is a very important and necessary tool if you plan to build a list for your internet marketing business. It’s the way you automatically send information to people who have requested it. There are a number of free ones such Most of the free ones have restrictions of various types and can be less reliable than the paid ones. This is probably the first thing to spend some of the money on that you've saved on the rest of your marketing. I recommend you take a look at as it is the industry leader.

These 7 ways of getting free marketing tools and information are just a few of products and services that can be found on the internet. Remember the 4 letter word to use whenever you're searching for something you need on the internet. That word is "FREE" and it will help you start your internet marketing business without hocking your soul.

How to make glass

Posted by RAMA MELOW | 1:43 AM | | 2 comments »

Glass is a combination of sand, flint, spar, or some other silicious substances, with one or other of the fixed alkalies, and in some cases with a metallic oxide. Of the alkalies, soda is commonly preferred; and of the silicious substances, white sand is most in repute at present, as it requires no preparation for coarse goods, while mere washing in water is sufficient for those of a finer quality. The metallic oxide usually employed, is litharge, or some other preparation of lead. Iron is used in bottle-glass.

The silicious matter should be fused in contact with something called a flux. The substances proper for this purpose are lead, borax, arsenic, nitre, or any alkaline matter. The lead is used in the state of red-lead; and the alkalies are soda, pearlash, sea-salt, and wood-ashes. When red-lead is used alone, it gives the glass a yellow cast and requires the addition of nitre to correct it. Arsenic, in the same manner, if used in excess, is apt to render the glass milky. For a perfectly transparent glass, the pearlash is found much superior to lead; perhaps better than any other flux, except it be borax, which is too expensive to be used, except for experiments, or for the best looking-glasses.

The materials for making glass must first be reduced to powder, which is done in mortars or by horse mills. After sifting out the coarse parts, the proper proportions of silex and flux are mixed together, and put into the calcining furnace, where they are kept in a moderate heat for 5 or 6 hours, being frequently stirred about during the process. When taken out the matter is called frit. Frit is easily converted into glass by only pounding it, and vitrifying it in the melting pots of the glass furnace; but in making fine glass, it will sometimes require a small addition of flux to the frit to correct any fault. For, as the flux is the most expensive article, the manufacturer will rather put too little at first than otherwise, as he can remedy this defect in the melting pot. The heat in the furnace must be kept up until the glass is brought to a state of perfect fusion; and during this process any scum which arises must be removed by ladles. When the glass is perfectly melted, the glass-blowers commence their operations.

For the best flint-glass, 120 lbs. of white sand, 50 lbs. of red-lead, 40 lbs. of the best pearlash, 20 lbs. of nitre, and 5 oz. of manganese; if a pound or two of arsenic be added, the composition will fuse much quicker, and with a lower temperature.

For a cheaper flint-glass, take 120 lbs. of white sand, 35 lbs. of pearlash, 40 lbs. of red-lead, 13 lbs. of nitre, 6 lbs. of arsenic, and 4 oz. of magnesia.

This requires a long heating to make clear glass, and the heat should be brought on gradually, or the arsenic is in danger of subliming before the fusion commences. A still cheaper composition is made by omitting the arsenic in the foregoing, and substituting common sea-salt.

For the best German crystal-glass, take 120 lbs. of calcined flints or white sand, the best pearlash, 70 lbs, saltpetre, 10 lbs.; arsenic, 1/2 lb., and 5 oz. of manganese. Or, a cheaper composition for the same purpose is 120 lbs. of sand or flints, 46 lbs. of pearlash, 7 lbs of nitre, 6 lbs. of arsenic, and 5 oz. of manganese. This will require a long continuance in the furnace; as do all others where much of the arsenic is employed.

For looking-glass plates washed white sand, 60 lbs.; purified pearlash, 25 lbs.; nitre, 15 lbs.; and 7 lbs. of borax. If properly managed, this glass will be colorless. But if it should be tinged by accident, a trifling quantity of arsenic, and an equal quantity of manganese, will correct it; an ounce of each may be tried first, and the quantity increased if necessary.

The ingredients for the best crown-glass must be prepared in the same manner as for looking-glasses, and mixed in the following proportions: 60 lbs. of white sand, 30 lbs. of pearlash, and 15 lbs. of nitre, 1 lb. of borax, and 1/2 lb. of arsenic.

The composition for common green window-glass is, 120 lbs. of white sand, 30 lbs. of unpurified pearlash; woodashes, well burnt and sifted, 60 lbs.; common salt, 20 lbs.; and 5 lbs. of arsenic.

Common green bottle-glass is made from 200 lbs. of wood-ashes and 100 lbs. of sand, or 170 lbs. of ashes, 100 lbs. of sand, and 50 lbs. of the slag of an iron furnace; these materials must be well mixed.

The materials employed in the manufacture of glass, are by chemists reduced to three classes, namely, alkalies, earths, and metallic oxides.

The fixed alkalies may be employed indifferently; but soda is preferred in this country. The soda of commerce is usually mixed with common salt, and combining with carbonic acid. It is proper to purify it from both of these foreign bodies before using it. This, however, is seldom done.

The earths are silica (the basis of flints), lime, and sometimes a little alumina (the basis of clay). Silica constitutes the basis of glass. It is employed in the state of fine sand or flints; and sometimes for making very fine glass, rock crystal is employed. When sand is used, it ought, if possible, to be perfectly white, for when it is colored with metallic oxides, the transparency of the glass is injured. Such sand can only be employed for very coarse glasses. It is necessary to free the sand from all the loose earthy particles with which it may be mixed, which is done by washing it well with water.

Lime renders glass less brittle, and enables it to withstand better the action of the atmosphere. It ought in no case to exceed the 20th part of the silica employed, otherwise it corrodes the glass pots. This indeed may be prevented by throwing a little clay into the melted glass; but in that case a green glass only is obtained.

The metallic oxides employed are the red oxide of lead or litharge, and the white oxide of arsenic.

The red oxide of lead, when added in sufficient quantity, enters into fusion with silica, and forms a milky hue like the dial-plate of a watch. When any combustible body is present, it is usual, in some manufactories, to add a little white oxide of arsenic. This supplying oxygen, the combustible is burnt, and flies off, while the revived arsenic is at the same time volatized.

There are several kinds of glass adapted to different uses. The best and most beautiful are the flint and the plateglass. These, when well made, are perfectly transparent and colorless, heavy and brilliant. They are composed of fixed alkali, pure siliceous sand, calcined flints and litharge, in different proportions. The flint glass contains a large quantity of oxide of lead, which by certain processes is easily separated. The plate glass is poured in the melted state upon a table covered with copper. The plate is cast 1/2 an inch thick or more, and is ground down to a proper degree of thickness, and then polished.

Crown-glass, that used for windows, is made without lead, chiefly of fixed alkali fused with silicious sand, to which is added some black oxide of manganese, which is apt to give the glass a tinge of purple.

Bottle-glass is the coarsest and cheapest kind, in this little or no fixed alkali enters the composition. It consists of alkaline earth and oxide of iron combined with alumina and silica. In this country it is composed of sand and the refuse of the soap-boiler, which consists of the lime employed in rendering this alkali caustic, and of the earthy matters with which the alkali was contaminated. The most fusible is flint-glass, and the least fusible is bottleglass.

Glass Types and Forms
In addition to compatibility, glass artists also differentiate among different types of glass in many different ways. One of the major criteria for differentiation is the transparency of the glass. Opaque glasses that do not transmit light are generally referred to as "opaques", as "opalescent" glasses, or as "opals." See-through glasses of various colors are usually called "transparent" or "cathedral" glasses. Combining more than one different opalescent or cathedral glass or color in a single kiln-formed work is common.

Several different companies offer lines of tested compatible glass, with the largest and most popular being Bullseye and Spectrum. Other companies offering tested compatible glass include Uroboros, Effetre (Moretti), Wasser, and Gaffer.

Bullseye, which has produced tested compatible glass since the 1970's, is generally acknowledged as the market leader, with a broader product offering than Spectrum or other brands. Spectrum's tested compatible program, initially launched in Spring 2000, contained glasses made by both Spectrum and Uroboros, and is marketed under the "System 96" name. Although the two product lines behave similarly in the kiln, they are not compatible, so most glass artists and hobbyists choose one or the other brand as their primary glass for fusing and slumping.

It should be noted that Bullseye, Spectrum, Uroboros, and many other firms also manufacture glass that is not guaranteed compatible. (A complete list would also include companies such as Armstrong, Desag, Freemont, GNA, Kokomo, Wissmach, and Youghiogheny. Sometimes the glasses made by these companies tests compatible for fusing, but often it does not. If you wish to use any of these glasses for kiln-forming projects involving more than a single sheet of glass, you will need to test for compatibility.

Virtually any stained glass, whether tested compatible or not, can be treated with an iridescent coating that causes the treated side of the glass to take on a metallic sheen. Some liken this effect to a shimmering rainbow. The shimmer goes away when the piece is lit from behind, allowing the normal color of the glass to shine through.

Another popular kind of glass coating, called "dichroic", has the unusual property of reflecting one color while it transmits another. This means that the different colors can be viewed by examining the glass at different angles. This unique glass is manufactured by spraying a thin chemical film on the glass. This must be done in a controlled environment in a vacuum chamber, making dichroic glass one of the most expensive glasses made for kiln-forming. Because of this expense, dichroic glass is more commonly used in jewelry and similar items, or as an accent in larger scale fusing projects.

One final type of glass that is often used for kiln-forming is "float" glass. Made by "floating" molten glass on a bath of molten tin, float glass is better known as common window glass. It is inexpensive and widely available. It also works well in the kiln, but care should be taken to test for compatibility if different brands and types of float glass are mixed together. If at all possible, cut pieces to be fused together from the same glass sheet.

Although some colored varieties of float glass are available, it is most commonly found in a clear (often slightly greenish) formulation. It tends to slump and fuse at slightly higher temperatures than most art glass (about 75 to 100 degrees F higher), and can be prone to devitrification. Its COE depends on the specific formulation used and can be as low as 83 or as high as 90, but it generally ranges from 85 to 87.


Posted by RAMA MELOW | 9:37 AM | | 1 comments »


The forehand drive is the opening of every offensive in tennis, and, as such, should be most
carefully studied. There are certain rules of footwork that apply to all shots. To reach a ball that
is a short distance away, advance the foot that is away from the shot and thus swing into position
to hit. If a ball is too close to the body, retreat the foot closest to the shot and drop the weight
back on it, thus, again, being in position for the stroke. When hurried, and it is not possible to
change the foot position, throw the weight on the foot closest to the ball.
The receiver should always await the service facing the net, but once the serve is started on the
way to court, the receiver should at once attain the position to receive it with the body at right
angles to the net.
The forehand drive is made up of one continuous swing of the racquet that, for the purpose of
analysis, may be divided into three parts:

1. The portion of the swing behind the body, which determines the speed of the stroke.
2. That portion immediately in front of the body which determines the direction and, in
conjunction with weight shift from one foot to the other, the pace of the shot.
3. The portion beyond the body, comparable to the golfer's "follow through," determines spin,

top or slice, imparted to the ball.
All drives should be topped. The slice shot is a totally different stroke.
To drive straight down the side-line, construct in theory a parallelogram with two sides made up
of the side-line and your shoulders, and the two ends, the lines of your feet, which should, if
extended, form the right angles with the side-lines. Meet the ball at a point about 4 to 4 1/2 feet
from the body immediately in front of the belt buckle, and shift the weight from the back to the
front foot at the MOMENT OF STRIKING THE BALL. The swing of the racquet should be flat
and straight through. The racquet head should be on a line with the hand, or, if anything, slightly
in advance; the whole arm and the racquet should turn slightly over the ball as it leaves the
racquet face and the stroke continue to the limit of the swing, thus imparting top spin to the ball.
The hitting plane for all ground strokes should be between the knees and shoulders. The most
favourable plane is on a line with the waist.
Never step away from the ball in driving cross court. always throw your weight in the shot.
The forehand drive from the left court is identically the same for the straight shot down your
opponent's forehand. For the cross drive to his backhand, you must conceive of a diagonal line
from your backhand corner to his, and thus make your stroke with the footwork as if this imaginary line were the side-line. In other words, line up your body along your shot and make
your regular drive. Do not try to "spoon" the ball over with a delayed wrist motion, as it tends to
slide the ball off your racquet.

All drives should be made with a stiff, locked wrist. There is no wrist movement in a true drive.
Top spin is imparted by the arm, not the wrist.
The backhand drive follows closely the principles of the forehand, except that the weight shifts a
moment sooner, and the R or front foot should always be advanced a trifle closer to the side-line
than the L so as to bring the body clear of the swing. The ball should be met in front of the right
leg, instead of the belt buckle, as the great tendency in backhand shots is to slice them out of the
side-line, and this will pull the ball cross court, obviating this error. The racquet head must be
slightly in advance of the hand to aid in bringing the ball in the court. Do not strive for too much
top spin on your backhand.

I strongly urge that no one should ever favour one department of his game, in defence of a
weakness. Develop both forehand and backhand, and do not "run around" your backhand,
particularly in return of service. To do so merely opens your court. If you should do so, strive to
ace your returns, because a weak effort would only result in a kill by your opponent.
Do not develop one favourite shot and play nothing but that. If you have a fair cross-court drive,
do not use it in practice, but strive to develop an equally fine straight shot.
Remember that the fast shot is the straight shot. The cross drive must be slow, for it has not the
room owing to the increased angle and height of the net. Pass down the line with your drive, but
open the court with your cross-court shot.
Drives should have depth. The average drive should hit behind the service-line. A fine drive
should hit within 3 feet of the baseline. A cross-court drive should be shorter than a straight
drive, so as to increase the possible angle. Do not always play one length drive, but learn to vary
your distance according to your man. You should drive deep against a baseliner, but short against
a net player, striving to drop them at his feet as, he comes in.
Never allow your opponent to play a shot he likes if you can possibly force him to one he
Again I urge that you play your drive:

1. With the body sideways to the net.
2. The swing flat, with long follow through.
3. The weight shifting just as the ball is hit.



Service is the opening gun of tennis. It is putting the ball in play. The old idea was that service
should never be more than merely the beginning of a rally. With the rise of American tennis and
the advent of Dwight Davis and Holcombe Ward, service took on a new significance. These two
men originated what is now known as the American Twist delivery.
From a mere formality, service became a point winner. Slowly it gained in importance, until
Maurice E. M'Loughlin, the wonderful "California Comet," burst across the tennis sky with the
first of those terrific cannon-ball deliveries that revolutionized the game, and caused the oldschool
players to send out hurry calls for a severe footfault rule or some way of stopping the
threatened destruction of all ground strokes. M'Loughlin made service a great factor in the game.

It remained for R. N. Williams to supply the antidote that has again put service in the normal
position of mere importance, not omnipotence. Williams stood in on the delivery and took it on
the rising bound.
Service must be speedy. Yet speed is not the be-all and end-all. Service must be accurate,
reliable, and varied. It must be used with discretion and served with brains.
Any tall player has an advantage over a short one, in service. Given a man about 6 feet and allow
him the 3 feet added by his reach, it has been proved by tests that should he deliver a service,
perfectly flat, with no variation caused by twist or wind, that just cleared the net at its lowest
point (3 feet in the centre), there is only a margin of 8 inches of the service court in which the
ball can possibly fall; the remainder is below the net angle. Thus it is easy to see how important
it is to use some form of twist to bring the ball into court. Not only must it go into court, but it
must be sufficiently speedy that the receiver does not have an opportunity of an easy kill. It must
also be placed so as to allow the server an advantage for his next return, admitting the receiver
puts the ball in play.
Just as the first law of receiving is to, put the ball in play, so of service it is to cause the receiver
to fall into error. Do not strive unduly for clean aces, but use your service to upset the ground
strokes of your opponent.
Service should be hit from as high a point as the server can COMFORTABLY reach. To stretch
unnecessarily is both wearing on the server and unproductive of results. Varied pace and varied
speed is the keynote to a good service.
The slice service should be hit from a point above the right shoulder and as high as possible. The
server should stand at about a forty-five degree angle to the baseline, with both feet firmly
planted on the ground. Drop the weight back on the right foot and swing the racquet freely and
easily behind the back. Toss the ball high enough into the air to ensure it passing through the
desired hitting plane, and then start a slow shift of the weight forward, at the same time
increasing the power of the swing forward as the racquet commences its upward flight to the ball. Just as the ball meets the racquet face the weight should be thrown forward and the full
power of the swing smashed into the service. Let the ball strike the racquet INSIDE the face of
the strings, with the racquet travelling directly towards the court. The angle of the racquet face
will impart the twist necessary to bring the ball in court. The wrist should be somewhat flexible
in service. If necessary lift the right foot and swing the whole body forward with the arm. Twist
slightly to the right, using the left foot as a pivot. The general line of the racquet swing is from
RIGHT to LEFT and always forward.
At this point and before I take up the other branches of serving, let me put in a warning against
footfaulting. I can only say that a footfault is crossing or touching the line with either foot before
the ball is delivered, or it is a jump or step. I am not going into a technical discussion of
footfaults. It is unnecessary, and by placing your feet firmly before the service there is no need to
It is just as unfair to deliberately footfault as to miscall a ball, and it is wholly unnecessary. The
average footfault is due to carelessness, over-anxiety, or ignorance of the rule. All players are
offenders at times, but it can quickly be broken up.

Footwork is weight control. It is correct body position for strokes, and out of it all strokes should
grow. In explaining the various forms of stroke and footwork I am writing as a right-hand player.
Left-handers should simply reverse the feet.
Racquet grip is a very essential part of stroke, because a faulty grip will ruin the finest serving. It
is a natural grip for a top forehand drive. It is inherently weak for the backhand, as the only
natural shot is a chop stroke.
To acquire the forehand grip, hold the racquet with the edge of the frame towards the ground and
the face perpendicular, the handle towards the body, and "shake hands" with it, just as if you
were greeting a friend. The handle settled comfortably and naturally into the hand, the line of the
arm, hand, and racquet are one. The swing brings the racquet head on a line with the arm, and the
whole racquet is merely an extension of it.

The backhand grip is a quarter circle turn of hand on the handle, bringing the hand on top of the
handle and the knuckles directly up. The shot travels ACROSS the wrist.
This is the best basis for a grip. I do not advocate learning this grip exactly, but model your
natural grip as closely as possible on these lines without sacrificing your own comfort or
Having once settled the racquet in the hand, the next question is the position of the body and the
order of developing strokes.
All tennis strokes, should be made with the body' at right angles to the net, with the shoulders
lined up parallel to the line of flight of the ball. The weight should always travel forward. It
should pass from the back foot to the front foot at the moment of striking the ball. Never allow
the weight to be going away from the stroke. It is weight that determines the "pace" of a stroke;
swing that, decides the "speed."
Let me explain the definitions of "speed" and "pace." "Speed" is the actual rate with which a ball
travels through the air. "Pace" is the momentum with which it comes off the ground. Pace is
weight. It is the "sting" the ball carries when it comes off the ground, giving the inexperienced or
unsuspecting player a shock of force which the stroke in no way showed.
A great many players have both "speed" and "pace." Some shots may carry both.
The order of learning strokes should be:

1. The Drive. Fore and backhand. This is the foundation of all tennis, for you cannot build up a net attack unless you have the ground stroke to open the way. Nor can you meet a net attack
successfully unless you can drive, as that is the only successful passing shot.
2. The Service.
3. The Volley and Overhead Smash.
4. The Chop or Half Volley and other incidental and ornamental strOkes


Chop Stroke.

In Tennis, a chop stroke is a shot where the angle towards the player and behind the racquet,
made by the line of flight of the ball, and the racquet travelling down across it, is greater than 45
degrees and may be 90 degrees. The racquet face passes slightly outside the ball and down the
side, chopping it, as a man chops wood. The spin and curve is from right to left. It is made with a
stiff wrist.
The slice shot merely reduced the angle mentioned from 45 degrees down to a very small one.
The racquet face passes either inside or outside the ball, according to direction desired, while the
stroke is mainly a wrist twist or slap. This slap imparts a decided skidding break to the ball,
while a chop "drags" the ball off the ground without break.

The rules of footwork for both these shots should be the same as the drive, but because both are
made with a short swing and more wrist play, without the need of weight, the rules of footwork
may be more safely discarded and body position not so carefully considered.
Both these shots are essentially defensive, and are labour-saving devices when your opponent is
on the baseline. A chop or slice is very hard to drive, and will break up any driving game.
It is not a shot to use against a volley, as it is too slow to pass and too high to cause any worry. It
should be used to drop short, soft shots at the feet of the net man as he comes in. Do not strive to
pass a net man with a chop or slice, except through a big opening.
The drop-shot is a very soft, sharply-angled chop stroke, played wholly with the wrist. It should
drop within 3 to 5 feet of the net to be of any use. The racquet face passes around the outside of
the ball and under it with a distinct "wrist turn." Do not swing the racquet from the shoulder in
making a drop shot. The drop shot has no relation to a stop-volley. The drop shot is all wrist. The
stop-volley has no wrist at all.
Use all your wrist shots, chop, slice, and drop, merely as an auxilliary to your orthodox game.
They are intended to upset your opponent's game through the varied spin on the ball.

The Half Volley.

This shot requires more perfect timing, eyesight, and racquet work than any other, since its
margin of safety is smallest and its manifold chances of mishaps numberless.
It is a pick-up. The ball meets the ground and racquet face at nearly the same moment, the ball
bouncing off the ground, on the strings. This shot is a stiff-wrist, short swing, like a volley with
no follow through. The racquet face travels along the ground with a slight tilt over the ball and
towards the net, thus holding the ball low; the shot, like all others in tennis, should travel across
the racquet face, along the short strings. The racquet face should always be slightly outside the
The half volley is essentially a defensive stroke, since it should only be made as a last resort,
when caught out of position by your opponent's shot. It is a desperate attempt to extricate
yourself from a dangerous position without retreating. never deliberately half volley.

Court position.

A tennis court is 39 feet long from baseline to net. There are only two places in a tennis court
that a tennis player should be to await the ball.

1. About 3 feet behind the baseline near the middle of the court, or

2. About 6 to 8 feet back from the net and almost opposite the ball.

The first is the place for all baseline players. The second is the net position.
If you are drawn out of these positions by a shot which you must return, do not remain at the
point where you struck the ball, but attain one of the two positions mentioned as rapidly as
The distance from the baseline to about 10, feet from the net may be considered as "no-man'sland"
or "the blank." Never linger there, since a deep shot will catch you at your feet. After
making your shot from the blank, as you must often do, retreat behind the baseline to await the
return, so you may again come forward to meet the ball. If you are drawn in short and cannot
retreat safely, continue all the way to the net position.
Never stand and watch your shot, for to do so simply means you are out of position for your next
stroke. Strive to attain a position so that you always arrive at the spot the ball is going to before it
actually arrives. Do your hard running while the ball is in the air, so you will not be hurried in
your stroke after it bounces.
It is in learning to do this that natural anticipation plays a big role. Some players instinctively
know where the next return is going and take position accordingly, while others will never sense
it. It is to the latter class that I urge court position, and recommend always coming in from
behind the baseline to meet the ball, since it is much easier to run forward than back.

Should you be caught at the net, with a short shot to your opponent, do not stand still and let him
pass you at will, as he can easily do. Pick out the side where you think he will hit, and jump to, it
suddenly as he swings. If you guess right, you win the point. If you are wrong, you are no worse
off, since he would have beaten you anyway with his shot.
Your position should always strive to be such that you can cover the greatest possible area of
court without sacrificing safety, since the straight shot is the surest, most dangerous, and must be
covered. It is merely a question of how much more court than that immediately in front of the
ball may be guarded.
A well-grounded knowledge of court position saves many points, to say nothing of much breath
expended in long runs after hopeless shots.


Posted by RAMA MELOW | 9:27 AM | | 0 comments »

I trust this initial effort of mine in the world of letters will find a place among both novices and
experts in the tennis world. I am striving to interest the student of the game by a somewhat
prolonged discussion of match play, which I trust will shed a new light on the game.
May I turn to the novice at my opening and speak of certain matters which are second nature to
the skilled player?
The best tennis equipment is not too good for the beginner who seeks really to succeed. It is a
saving in the end, as good quality material so far outlasts poor.

Always dress in tennis clothes when engaging in tennis. The question of choosing a racquet is a
much more serious matter. I do not advocate forcing a certain racquet upon any player. All the
standard makes are excellent. It is in weight, balance, and size of handle that the real value of a
racquet frame depends, while good stringing is, essential to obtain the best results.
After you have acquired your racquet, make a firm resolve to use good tennis balls, as a regular
bounce is a great aid to advancement, while a "dead" ball is no practice at all.
If you really desire to succeed at the game and advance rapidly, I strongly urge you to see all the
good tennis you can. Study the play of the leading players and strive to copy their strokes. Read
all the tennis instruction books you can find. They are a great assistance.
More tennis can be learned off the court, in the study of theory, and in watching the best players
in action, than can ever be learned in actual play. I do not mean miss opportunities to play. Far
from it. Play whenever possible, but strive when playing to put in practice the theories you have
read or the strokes you have watched.
Never be discouraged at slow progress. The trick over some stroke you have worked over for
weeks unsuccessfully will suddenly come to you when least expected. Tennis players are the
product of hard work. Very few are born geniuses at the game.
Tennis is a game that pays you dividends all your life. A tennis racquet is a letter of introduction
in any town. The brotherhood of the game is universal, for none but a good sportsman can
succeed in the game for any lengthy period. Tennis provides relaxation, excitement, exercise,
and pure enjoyment to the man who is tied hard and fast to his business until late afternoon. Age
is not a drawback. The tennis players of the world wrote a magnificent page in the history of the
World War. No branch of sport sent more men to the colours from every country in the world
than tennis, and these men returned with glory or paid the supreme sacrifice on the field of
The following order of development produces the quickest and most lasting results:

1. Concentration on the game.
2. Keep the eye on the ball.
3. Foot-work and weight-control.
4. Strokes.
5. Court position.
6. Court generalship or match play.
7. Tennis psychology.

Tennis is played primarily with the mind. The most perfect racquet technique in the world will
not suffice if the directing mind is wandering. There are many causes of a wandering mind in a
tennis match. The chief one is lack of interest in the game. No one should play tennis with an
idea of real success unless he cares sufficiently about the game to be willing to do the drudgery
necessary in learning the game correctly. Give it up at once unless you are willing to work.
Conditions of play or the noises in the gallery often confuse and bewilder experienced matchplayers
playing under new surroundings. Complete concentration on the matter in hand is the
only cure for a wandering mind, and the sooner the lesson is learned the more rapid the
improvement of the player.
The surest way to hold a match in mind is to play for every set, every game in the set, every
point in the game and, finally, every shot in the point. A set is merely a conglomeration of made
and missed shots, and the man who does not miss is the ultimate victor.